About Hydraulic FracturingHydraulic fracturing, commonly referred to as "fracking", is the process of creating small cracks, or fractures, in underground geological formations to allow natural gas to flow into the wellbore and on to the surface where the gas is collected and prepared for sale to a wide variety of consumers. Variables such as the permeability and porosity of the surrounding rock formations and thickness of the targeted shale formation are studied by geoscientists before the fracking process is conducted. The result is a highly sophisticated and carefully engineered process that creates a network of fractures that are safely contained within the boundaries of the targeted deep shale natural gas formation.
During the fracking process, a mixture of water, sand and other chemical additives designed to protect the integrity of the geological formation and enhance production is pumped under high pressure into the shale formation to create small fractures. The mixture is approximately 99.5% water and sand, along with a very small amount of special-purpose additives. The newly created fractures are "propped" open by the sand, which allows the natural gas to flow into the wellbore where it is collected at the surface and subsequently delivered to a wide ranging group of consumers.
Frac-BallsOne of the tools used by some operators of hydraulic fracturing equipment includes specially sized "frac-balls" which are injected into a well to block or close off portions of a well to allow pressure to build up and cause fracturing in a target section of the well. Frac-balls may be made of various materials, including G-10 (or other related phenolics), Torlon, PEEK, and other high-temperature thermosets or thermoplastics. Typically, the material selected is based upon the operators' experience and the chemistry and temperatures within the well. Frac-ball sizes are selected specifically to fit within the well-bore or sliding sleeves which vary in diameter as the well sections progress from upper to lower (or end) sections.
One popular method for creating multiple fractures in a wellbore is the use of frac ports & sliding sleeves. Openhole packers isolate different sections of the horizontal well. A sliding sleeve is placed between each packer pair and is opened by injecting a properly sized fracball inside the borehole. Typically, a completion string is placed inside the well. The string include frac ports and open hole packers spaced to specifications. The spacing between packers may be up to several hundred feet. The packers are actuated by mechanical, hydraulic or chemical mechanisms. In order to activate each sleeve, a properly sized frac-ball is pumped along with a fracturing fluid inside the well. Each ball is smaller than the opening of all of the previous sleeves, but larger than the sleeve it is intended to open. Seating of the fracball exerts pressure at the end of the sliding sleeve assembly, causing it to slide and open the frac ports. Once the port is opened, the fluid is diverted into the openhole space outside of the completion assembly, causing the formation to fracture.
At the completion of each fracturing stage, the next larger frac-ball is injected into the well, which opens the next sleeve, and so on, until all of the sleeves are opened and multiple fractures are created in the well. The main advantage of this completion technique is the speed of operation (by activating multiple fractures with a single completion string, also reducing cost.
Boedeker Plastics Solutions
for the Oil & Gas Industry
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Horizontal Fracturing Videos
1. "Hydraulic Fracturing - Shale Natural Gas Extraction" by smtlearningchannel
This is an educational video describing the unique process of
Hydraulic Fracturing used by the oil and gas industry today.
2. "Hydraulic Fracturing" by Energy from Shale
This video gives an overview of the hydraulic fracturing process used for more than
60 years for the extraction of oil and natural gas from underground shale formations
3. "Hydraulic Fracturing: How it works" by Imperial Oil
Learn how Imperial Oil is using hydraulic fracturing technology.
4. "Horizontal Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing" by Hydraulic Fracturing
An animation demonstrating the horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing process in natural gas exploration.
5. "What is Hydraulic Fracturing?" by EnergyInDepth
Hydraulic fracturing, or fracking, is a decades old technology used to develop oil and natural
gas resources from deep shale formations. Here's how hydraulic fracturing really works.
6. "Animation of Hydraulic Fracturing (fracking)" by Marathon Oil Corp
Hydraulic fracturing (also known as fracking) and horizontal drilling
allow for production of oil and natural gas from tight shale formations.
7. "QuickFRAC® Animation" by Packers Plus
Hydraulic fracturing of multiple zones using increasing-sized Frac Balls.
8. "RepeaterPORT® Animation" by Packers Plus
New technology that allows for multiple stage activation with the same size Frac Ball.
9. "FracPoint Openhole Fracture Completion System" by Baker Hughes
Fracture completion system isolates multiple zones in open and cased holes.
10. "Chesapeake Energy hydraulic fracturing method" by Chesapeake Energy
Animation demonstrating the horizontal drilling and hydraulic
fracturing process in natural gas exploration.
Horizontal Fracturing Reference Links
Chesapeake Energy - http://www.hydraulicfracturing.com
Schlumberger "Fracture" Definition - http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/Terms/f/fracture.aspx
Schlumberger "Ball Sealer" Definition - http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/Terms/b/ball_sealers.aspx
EP Magazine "Frac Sleeves" Article - http://www.epmag.com/Magazine/2009/11/item47576.php
Baker Hughes Hydraulic Fracturing - https://www.bakerhughes.com/products-and-services/pressure-pumping/hydraulic-fracturing
Baker Hughes Openhole Multizone Fracturing - https://www.bakerhughes.com/products-and-services/completions/well-completions/sand-control-pumping-tools-and-services/gravel-and-frac-pack-systems/torrent-multizone-single-trip-system
For Frac-Ball Inquiries, Pricing and Delivery
Andy Forelast updated December 2, 2016
Technical Sales Specialist
Houston, Texas USA
Boedeker Plastics, Inc.
904 West 6th Street, Shiner, Texas 77984 USA
USA TOLLFREE : 1-800-444-3485
Phone: 1-361-594-2941 Fax: 1-361-594-2349 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
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